Online Veterinary Advice

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This page is not intended as a substitute for the medical advice of veterinarians. Readers should regularly consult a veterinarian in matters relating to their dog’s health, and particularly with respect to any symptoms that may require medical attention. In writing this page, we have described the signs and symptoms that will lead you to a preliminary idea of what is happening with your dog, so you can weigh the severity of the problem. Knowing when to call your veterinarian is very important. Delays can be dangerous. At the same time, we have sought to provide guidance for the acute or emergency situations that you must handle on your own until you can get your dog to a veterinarian. Life-saving procedures such as artificial respiration and heart massage, and what to do in the event of poisonings, obstetrical problems, and other emergencies are explained step by step. But a webpage is never a substitute for professional care. Advice from a site can never be as helpful or as safe as actual medical advice. No text can replace the interview and the hands-on examination that enables a veterinarian to make a speedy and accurate diagnosis. However, the knowledge provided on this page will enable you to more effectively cooperate and better understand your interactions with your veterinarian. You’ll be more alert to the signs of health problems and better able to describe them. You’ll know more about basic care for your dog, and you’ll be prepared in an emergency.

 

Dog Emergencies

 

Handling and Restraining dogs: Muzzles | Restraining dogs for Examination and Treatment | Carrying an Injured Dog | Transporting an Injured Dog | Artificial Respiration and Heart Massage | Artificial Respiration | CPR | Dogs and Shock: Anaphylactic Shock | Acute Painful Abdomen | Broken Bones in Dogs | Dog Burns Cold Exposure: Hypothermia (Low Body Temperature) | Frostbite Dehydration and Dogs | Drowning and Suffocation in Dogs | Electric Shock and Dogs | Heat Stroke and Dogs| Poisoning and Dogs : General Treatment of Poisoning | Contact Poisons | Drug Poisons | Rodent Poisons | Antifreeze | Poison Baits | Insecticides | Garbage and food Poisons | Chocolate | Raisins, Grapes and other Food Poisons | Corrosive Household Products | Petroleum Products | Poisonous Plants | Lead | Zinc | Toad and Salamander Poisoning | Insect Stings and Bites | Snakebites: Pit Vipers (Rattlesnakes, Cottonmouths, and Copperheads) | Coral Snakes | Treating Snakebites Wounds: Controlling Bleeding | Treating Wounds | Bandaging a Wound

Note: One of the cardinal rules in dealing with any emergency is for you to remain calm. If you panic, you won’t be thinking clearly and you will panic your dog. Take a deep breath, quietly reassure your dog, and then do what is necessary. Don’t hesitate to ask for help, and remember that your dog is relying on you.

 

Gastrointestinal Parasites in Dogs

 

Deworming Puppies and Adult Dogs : Deworming Puppies | Deworming Adult Dogs | How to Control Worms in Dogs | Ascarids (Roundworms) | Hookworms (Ancylostoma) | Tapeworms | Whipworms | Threadworms (Strongyloides) | Other Worm Parasites: Pinworms | Trichinosis | Lungworms | Lung Flukes | Heartworms

 

Vaccination

 

Vaccinations for Dogs: Why Vaccines Fail | The Revaccination Debate | Core and Noncore Vaccines | Combination Vaccines | Available Vaccines for Dogs: CanineDistemper(Core) | Infectious Hepatitis (Core) | Canine Parvovirus (Core) | Rabies (Core) | Leptospirosis Bacterin (Noncore) | Canine Parainfluenza (Noncore) | Bordetella (Noncore) | Lyme Disease (Noncore) | Coronavirus (Not Recommended) | Giardia (Not Recommended) | Porphyromonas (Not Recommended) | Vaccination Recommendations for Dogs

 

Infectious Diseases

 

Bacterial Diseases and dogs: Brucellosis | Leptospirosis | Bordetella Bronchiseptica | Salmonella | Campylobacteriosis | Coliobacillosis (E. Coli) | Lyme Disease | Viral Diseases and dogs: Distemper | Canine Herpesvirus Infection | Infectious Canine Hepatitis | Rabies | Kennel Cough | Canine Parvovirus | Canine Coronavirus | Fungal Diseases and dogs: Histoplasmosis | Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) | Cryptococcosis | Blastomycosis | Sporotrichosis | Protozoan Diseases and dogs:Neosporosis | Toxoplasmosis | Coccidiosis | Trichomoniasis | Giardiasis | Canine Babesiosis | Canine Hepatozoonosis | American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) | Rickettsial Diseases and dogs: Canine Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis | Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever | Canine Salmon Poisoning Disease | Antibodies and Immunity

 

The Dog’s Skin and Coat

 

The Dog’s Coat: Hair Growth and Shedding | Avoiding Coat and Skin Problems in Dogs: Grooming | Brushing and Combing Techniques | Removing Mats Beyond the Brush: Trimming the Nails | Bathing Dogs| Dry Shampoos | Special Bath Problems | Sorting Out Skin Diseases in Dogs | Fleas and Dogs: The Flea Life Cycle | New Methods of Flea Control | Topical Insecticides for Flea Control | A Suggested Flea-Control Program | Eliminating Fleas on the Premises | Ticks and Dogs | Other External Parasites on Dogs: Scabies (Sarcoptic Mange) | Cheyletiella Mange (Walking Dandruff) | Chiggers (Trombiculid Mites) | Lice (Pediculosis) | Pelodera Dermatitis (Damp Hay Itch) | Flies | Using Insecticides on Dogs | Insecticide Dips | Disinfecting the Premises | Lick Granuloma (Acral Pruritic Dermatitis) | Allergies and Dogs | Hives | Flea Allergy Dermatitis | Atopic Dermatitis (Canine Atopy) | Food Allergy | Irritant and Allergic Contact Dermatitis | Disorders with Hair Loss | Hypothyroidism | Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Syndrome) | Hyperestrogenism (Estrogen Excess) | Growth Hormone–Responsive Alopecia | Hypoestrogenism (Estrogen Deficiency) | Traction Alopecia | Acanthosis Nigrans | Vitiligo | Zinc-Responsive Dermatosis | Color Mutant Alopecia (Blue Doberman Syndrome) | Black Hair Follicle Dysplasia | Sebaceous Adenitis | Seborrhea | Ringworm | Demodectic Mange | Pressure Sores (Calluses) | Pyoderma (Skin Infections) Puppy Dermatitis (Impetigo and Acne) | Folliculitis | Skin Fold Pyoderma | Acute Moist Dermatitis (Hot Spots) | Cellulitis and Skin Abscess | Juvenile Pyoderma (Puppy Strangles) | Mycetoma | Interdigital Cysts and Pododermatitis | Actinomycosis and Nocardiosis | Autoimmune and Immune-Mediated Skin Diseases: Pemphigus Complex | Bullous Pemphigoid | Lupus Erythematosus Complex | Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis | Erythema Multiforme | Nodular Panniculitis

 

Sex and Reproduction in Dogs

 

The Basics of Genetics | Inheriting Problem Genes | Breeding Purebred Dogs: Following Bloodlines | The Brood Bitch | The Stud Dog | The Estrous (Heat) Cycle | Hormonal Effects During Estrous | When to Breed | The Tie | Mating Procedures: Getting Ready | Normal Mating | Helping the Mating Along | A Prolonged Tie | Shy Breeders and Dogs Who Won’t Mate | Artificial Insemination | Male Infertility | Impotence | Evaluating Infertility in the Stud Dog | Treating Male Infertility | Female Infertility| Evaluating Infertility in the Bitch | Infertility with a Normal Estrous Cycle | Abnormal Estrous Cycles | Fetal Loss During Pregnancy | Pseudocyesis (False Pregnancy) | Unwanted Pregnancy | Preventing Pregnancy Ovariohysterectomy (Spaying) | Contraceptive Drugs | Castration (Neutering) | Diseases of the Female Genital Tract: Vaginitis (Vaginal Infection) | Vaginal Hyperplasia and Prolapse | Pyometra and Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia | Endometritis | Diseases of the Male Genital Tract: Balanoposthitis (Infection of the Prepuce and Head of the Penis) | Phimosis (Strictured Foreskin) | Paraphimosis (Penis Trapped Outside the Sheath) | Undescended Testicles | Orchitis (Infection of the Testicles) | Testicular Hypoplasia and Degeneration

 

Pregnancy and Whelping

 

 

Pediatrics

 

Caring for Newborns: General Appearance and Vitality | Body Temperature | The Importance of Nursing | The Importance of Weight Gain | Dehydration | Why Puppies Die | Reviving a Weak Puppy | Raising Puppies by Hand | The Incubator | General Care | Hand Feeding | Calculating How Much Formula | How to Give Formula | Common Feeding Problems | Raising a Singlet | Diseases of Newborn Puppies: Neonatal Isoerythrolysis | Umbilical (Navel) Infection | Puppy Septicemia | Canine Herpesvirus | Flat (Swimmer) Puppies | Pyloric Stenosis | Skin Infections | Cleft Palate | Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) | Hernia | Weaning| How to Feed | Feeding Growing Puppies | The Importance of Early Socialization | Acquiring a New Puppy: Selecting a Breed | Selecting a Breeder | Choosing a Healthy Puppy | Considering Disposition

 

The Dog’s Eyes

 

How Dogs See | What to Do if Your Dog Has an Eye Problem:Signs of Eye Ailments | How to Examine the Eye | How to Apply Eye Medicines | The Eyeball:Eye Out of Its Socket | Other Causes of a Bulging Eye | Enophthalmos (Sunken Eye) | Dermoid Cyst (Hair Growing from the Eyeball) | Eyelids: Blepharospasm (Severe Squinting) | Blepharitis (Inflamed Eyelids) | Chemosis (Allergic Blepharitis) | Foreign Bodies in the Eyes | Burns of the Eyes | Sties and Chalazions | Distichiasis (Extra Eyelashes) | Facial Hair | Entropion | Ectropion | Eyelid Tumors | The Nictitating Membrane (Third Eyelid):Film over the Eye | Eversion of the Cartilage | Cherry Eye | The Outer Eye: Conjunctivitis (Red Eye) | Neonatal Conjunctivitis | The Tearing Mechanism: Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (Dry Eye) | Epiphora (Watery Eye) | Nasolacrimal Occlusion | Poodle Eye | The Cornea:Corneal Abrasion | Corneal Ulcer | Indolent Corneal Ulcers in Boxers | Keratitis (Cloudy Eye) | Corneal Dystrophy | The Inner Eye: Blindness | Cataracts | Anterior Uveitis (Soft Eye) | Glaucoma | Retinal Diseases:Collie Eye Anomaly Syndrome | Progressive Retinal Atrophy | Central Progressive Retinal Atrophy | Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

The Dog’s Ears

 

 

The Dog’s Nose

 

 

 

The Dog’s Mouth and Throat

How to Examine a dog’s Mouth | Signs of Mouth and Throat Disease | The Dog’s Mouth: Cheilitis (Inflammation of the Lips) | Lip Fold Pyoderma | Mouth Lacerations | Mouth Burns | Stomatitis (Sore Mouth) | Oral Papillomas | Foreign Objects in the Mouth | Growths in the Mouth | Dog’s Teeth and Gums: Deciduous and Adult Teeth | Retained Baby Teeth | Abnormal Number of Teeth | Malocclusion (Incorrect Bite) | Unstable Jaw | Periodontal Disease | Cavities | Abscessed Roots | Broken Teeth | Enamel Hypoplasia or Damage | Taking Care of Your Dog’s Teeth | Brushing the Teeth and Gums | The Dog’s Throat: Pharyngitis (Sore Throat) and Tonsillitis | Foreign Body in the Throat (Gagging) | A Dog’s Salivary Glands: Hypersalivation (Drooling) | Salivary Gland Cysts, Infections, and Tumors | The Dog’s Head: Head and Neck Abscesses | Craniomandibular Osteopathy (Swollen Jaw)

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The Dog’s Digestive System

Endoscopy | Gastroscopy | Colonoscopy | The Esophagus | Regurgitation | Dysphagia (Difficult, Painful Swallowing) | Megaesophagus (Enlarged Esophagus) | Foreign Body in the Esophagus | Esophagitis | Esophageal Stricture | Growths | The Dog’s Stomach | Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers | Gastric Outflow Obstruction | Gastric Tumors | Gastric Dilatation Volvulus (Bloat) | Addison’s Disease (Hypoadrenocorticism) | Acute Gastritis | Chronic Gastritis | Motion Sickness | Vomiting and Dogs | Causes of Vomiting in Dogs | Home Treatment of Vomiting for Dogs | Small and Large Bowels | Inflammatory Bowel Disease | Acute Infectious Enteritis | Malabsorption Syndrome | Colitis | Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies | Intestinal Obstruction | Flatulence (Passing Gas) | Coprophagia (Eating Stool) | Peritonitis | Constipation | Fecal Impaction | Diarrhea | Home Treatment of Diarrhea | The Anus and Rectum | Anorectal Obstructions | Pseudoconstipation (Matted Stool Around the Anus) | Proctitis (Inflamed Anus and Rectum) | Anorectal Prolapse (Protrusion of Anal Tissue) | Malformation of the Anus | Anal Sac Disease | Perianal Fistulas | Rectal Polyps and Cancers | Perianal Gland Tumors | The Liver | Liver Failure | Causes of Liver Disease | The Pancreas | Pancreatitis | Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency | Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) | Feeding and Nutrition | Protein and Dog Food | Commercial Dog Foods | Feeding Growing Puppies | Feeding Adults | Raw and Homemade Diets Table Scraps and Extras | Supplements | Diets for Health Problems | Switching Diets | Weight Reduction

 

The Dog’s Respiratory System

Abnormal Breathing | Rapid, Labored Breathing | Noisy Breathing | Stridor (Croupy Breathing) | Wheezing | Shallow Breathing | Brachycephalic Syndrome | The Larynx (Voice Box) | Laryngitis | Laryngeal Edema | Choking (Foreign Body in the Larynx) | Laryngospasm (Reverse Sneezing) | Laryngeal Paralysis (Vocal Cord Paralysis) | Laryngeal Trauma | Laryngeal Collapse | Debarking and Barking Problems | Coughing | Diagnosing a Cough | Treating a Cough | Trachea and Bronchi | Acute Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough Complex) | Foreign Body in the Lungs | Collapsing Trachea | Chronic Bronchitis | The Lungs | Pneumonia | Pulmonary Infiltrates of Eosinophils | Canine Influenza | Pleural Effusion | Tumors of the Larynx, Trachea, and Lungs

 

The Dog’s Circulatory System

The Normal Heart | Pulse | Heart Sounds | Circulation | Heart Disease | Chronic Valvular Disease | Dilated Cardiomyopathy | Congenital Heart Disease | Bacterial Endocarditis | Myocarditis | Arrhythmias | Congestive Heart Failure | Heartworms | Heartworm Life Cycle | Heartworm Disease | Diagnosis | Treating Heartworm Disease | Heartworm Prevention | Anemia and Clotting Disorders | Blood-Loss Anemia | Hemolytic Anemias | Inadequate Red Blood Cell Production | Clotting Disorders

 

The Dog’s Nervous System

Neurological Evaluation Head Injuries | Skull Fractures | Open Fontanel | Brain Injuries | Treating Head Injuries | Brain Diseases | Encephalitis (Brain Infection) | Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis | Brain Tumors and Abscesses | Stroke | Hereditary Diseases | Hereditary Myopathies (Muscular Dystrophy) | Degenerative Myelopathy | Inherited Neuropathies | White Dog Shaker Syndrome | Hydrocephalus | Seizure Disorders | Epilepsy | Narcolepsy and Cataplexy | Compulsive Behaviors | Aggressive Behaviors | Coma | Weakness or Paralysis | Tick Paralysis | Botulism | Coonhound Paralysis | Myasthenia Gravis | Hypokalemia (Low Serum Potassium) | Spinal Cord Diseases | Spinal Cord Injuries | Infections and Tumors | Ruptured Discs | Fibrocatilaginous Embolic Myelopathy | Wobbler Syndrome | Cauda Equina Syndrome | Spondylosis (Bone Spurs) | Peripheral Nerve Injuries | Dead Tail or Limber Tail

 

The Dog’s Musculoskeletal System

Limping or Lameness | Determining the Cause | Diagnostic Tests | Bone and Joint Injuries | Osteomyelitis (Bone Infection) Sprains | Tendon Injuries | Muscle Strains | Luxation (Dislocated Joint) | Stifle Injuries | Inherited Orthopedic Diseases | Hip Dysplasia | Legg-Perthes Disease | Luxating Patella (Slipping Kneecap) | Elbow Dysplasia | Osteochondrosis | Panosteitis (Wandering Lameness) | Arthritis | Osteoarthritis (Degenerative Joint Disease) | Immune-Mediated Arthritis | Infectious Arthritis | Metabolic Bone Diseases | Hyperparathyroidism | Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy | Vitamin and Mineral Supplements

 

The Dog’s Urinary System

Signs of Urinary Tract Disease | Dysuria (Painful Urination) | Hematuria (Blood in the Urine) | Polyuria (Excessive Urination) | Urinary Incontinence | Diagnosing Urinary Tract Diseases | Diseases of the Bladder and Urethra | Cystitis (Bladder Infection) | Bladder and Urethral Stones | Obstructed Bladder | Urinary Incontinence | Enlarged Prostate | Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia | Prostatitis | Prostate Cancer | Kidney Disease | Congenital Kidney Problems | Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) | Nephritis and Nephrosis | Uremia (Kidney Failure) | Dialysis | Kidney Transplant

 

Tumors and Cancers in Dogs

What Causes Cancer? | Treating Tumors and Cancers | Finding Treatment | Common Surface Tumors | Skin Papillomas | Hematomas | Epidermal Inclusion Cysts (Sebaceous Cysts) Lipomas | Histiocytomas | Sebaceous Adenomas | Basal Cell Tumors | Mastocytomas (Mast Cell Tumors) | Squamous Cell Carcinomas | Melanomas | Perianal Tumors | Soft Tissue Sarcomas | Lymphoma (Lymphosarcoma) | Hemangiosarcoma | Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder | Bone Tumors | Malignant Bone Tumors | Benign Bone Tumors | Reproductive Tract Tumors | Tumors of the Testicles | Transmissible Venereal Tumors | Vaginal Tumors | Tumors of the Ovaries | Mammary Gland (Breast) Tumors | Leukemia

 

Geriatrics

The Geriatric Checkup | Danger Signs in the Geriatric Dog | Behavior Changes | Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome | Physical Changes | Musculoskeletal Problems | Coat and Skin Problems | The Senses | Mouth, Teeth, and Gums | Functional Changes | Increased Thirst and Frequent Urination | House Soiling | Constipation | Diarrhea | Abnormal Discharges | Weight Changes | Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration | Diet and Nutrition | Counting Calories | Vitamins and Minerals | Special Diets | Hospice Care | Euthanasia | A Final Memorial

 

Medications

Anesthetics and Anesthesia | Analgesics | Antibiotics | Why Antibiotics Fail | Antibiotics and Steroids | Drug Complications | Toxicity | Allergic Reactions | How to Give Medications | Pills, Capsules, and Tablets | Liquids | Injections | Suppositories | Compounded Medicines | Other Medications

 

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Online Veterinary Advice